Descending into a volcano should only ever be attempted with very experienced volcano abseilers, too.
Crackles and pops can be heard as the ferocious volcano simmers threateningly just several years after it last erupted
And the extreme sports enthusiasts need heavy duty oxygen canisters because the air above the spewing lava contains so many toxic volcanic gases.
The men set up their abseiling equipment at the top of the volcano before lowering themselves hundreds of feet down the inside of the crater.
But not for these daredevils who have taken abseiling to new extremes by descending into the jaws of a live volcano.
Geoff and his team set up their equipment on the lip of the active Marum volcano – which is classified as highly dangerous and is constantly sending plumes of volcanic ash more than a mile high over the island.. Official warnings tell visitors to observe the volcano from a distance, well away from the crater.
One volcano abseiling video that has become an internet sensation was filmed volcanologist Geoff Mackley at the remote Marum volcano on Ambrym Island in the South Pacific Ocean.
Volcano abseiling has to be done with silver heat-proof suits to ensure that they can withstand the intense heat generated by the volcano’s lava.
The volcano sits in the ring of fire and is one of the most dangerous in the world. It actually erupted several years ago and is capable of erupting again in the near future.
Crackles and pops can be heard as the ferocious volcanoes simmer threateningly below them.
However, volcano abseiling should only ever be attempted by people who have studied volcanoes for many years. It is also a very expensive sport as the travel costs of reaching the often remote volcanoes can be very high.
For most people abseiling alone is enough of an adrenaline buzz.
Islanders even believe that the volcano is the place where they begin a fiery descent into the afterlife when they have died.
Volcanologists agree that the people are able to perform volcano abseiling and even walk right up to the stream of hot lava.
Volcano abseilers must also first be very comfortable with the use of climbing ropes and be used to abseiling down rock faces and buildings
The goal is to place your bet on the next possible outcome of the ball after spinning. Download of songs, videos and games are pretty fast and easy. For the longest time, many has no idea of the game, if you’re one of them, learn the game now. Blackjack Android is one of the most popular game in Mobile Gambling because of its easy game-play rule. Furthermore, mobile slots gives you more chances on winning. Android Bingo
Having this casino games on your phone can really suffice your casino gaming needs. Just like Android Roulette it is more convenient to use, always with you 24/7. Now, computer is out, and playing this game can be anywhere at anytime. And because of the rapid popularity of Android, you can see almost every people are using this amazing phone, that’s why our gambling software providers also hit them.
Getting ready for more spinning but couldn’t manage your time? Then, Android Slot is perfectly made for you.
Just like any other casino, Android Casino offers the same variety of games. You can treat it as your own personal computer. Android community sees this problem and they also know that many of us is a blackjack enthusiast. It is either European or American Roulette. . At these point on casino industry, Android Casino gaming is the most talk of the town.
Android phones can give you anything, can put you anywhere. First only at certain cities, then casino houses were built, followed by worldwide gaming, to online casinos and now, mobile casino. There are huge selection on Android Market to download the latest and entertaining mobile casino slot machine in the industry.
On Android Roulette, you can play anywhere, with or without internet connection or WIFI. Without connection, you can practice and study the odds of the game using Android phones, while playing with connection, you can win real money with real players.
With Android Market, you can download just any casino games you like to play on your palm.
The game still follows the same old rules but different strategies that the players must know for themselves. The hidden way to jackpot? You can stop the spinning any time. It has the feature of hitting, standing and splitting. It can be on odd or even number, on black or red color, on zero, on any number or you can choose between ranges of numbers. You can choose the pattern you want to achieve whether it is in corners, middle line, bottom line or top line. But the most common and popular now is 90-ball game. It is not now the matter of being lucky, it is now being good at chances. You can visit just any site. The only patter that stays is the Full House which has the biggest pay-out money.
Yey! The most played and entertaining casino games both played by women and men, oldies and youngsters can be on your palm. Enlisted below are some of these exciting games.
Android Slots is more fun to play for they offer more paylines and winning combinations. You can win with real money or even just for fun. Get an Android phone and play.
For more than centuries, casino has been so popular without any doubt.
Roulette being played at Android phones are similar to the Roulette games we have known. Bingo can now be played not only on a carton cards or computer cards, but also in your Android Phones! With a live voice that will make you feel like you’re playing with a live caller, big payouts when there are lots of players and four different games played for one session. You can try them, visit them, review them then download to your phone.
Android Bingo also includes 75-ball and 90-ball game. How? You can play and practice all by yourself with or without internet connection. You can open and update you Facebook and Twitter accounts. Let Solitaire take a part of it if you like.
Our world is spinning fast and we get busier every day. Because of this, our hobbies and past-times are almost forgotten. Added to the games are Android Craps, Android Video Poker and Android Keno
26 Short Guide to Texas Hold ‘Emby Alyson Modlin (21 followers)
There are 52 cards in a standard deck of cards, numbered 2-10, Jack, Queen, King, and Ace of four different suits (clubs, hearts, spades, and diamonds). Poker is a game of odds, luck, and skill. The winner…
This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. All Rights Reserved. Once there, the property wound around a circular pattern instead of the linear layout of most other casinos.
Revel is shutting down a little over two years after opening with high hopes of revitalizing Atlantic City’s struggling gambling market. Entering from the Boardwalk, they had to take a vertiginous escalator up four flights to reach the casino floor. 16.
Revel officials declined to comment.
“If there had been a range of new attractions and potential customers with enough discretionary income, I think that Atlantic City could have absorbed the new capacity,” said David Schwartz, director of the Center for Gaming Research at the University of Nevada Las Vegas. Juliano said Revel apparently hoped there would be additional development in the immediate area that it could sell utility service to, but that never materialized.
Revel will be the second of three Atlantic City casinos to close in a two-week span. At the same time, Revel didn’t have a plan to successfully market to the traditional Atlantic City customer.”
“The timing of it could not have been worse,” said Mark Juliano, president of Sands Bethlehem in Pennsylvania and the former CEO of Trump Entertainment Resorts in Atlantic City. High room and restaurant prices hurt, too.
Revel still hopes to find a buyer for the property after it has ceased to operate as a casino.
ATLANTIC CITY, N.J. It also started at a huge disadvantage by not having a pre-existing database of gamblers to solicit, in the way that casinos owned by nationwide companies like Caesars Entertainment or Tropicana Entertainment can.
Customers found Revel’s design off-putting as well, said Joe Lupo, senior vice president of the Borgata, whose upscale market Revel appeared to target. “That’s certainly what happened with Borgata more than 10 years ago.
A huge power plant proved enormously costly. By the time those decisions were reversed, it was already too late. It has never turned a profit.
The idea behind Revel was to open a totally different resort, a seaside pleasure palace that just happened to have a casino as one of its features. But mired in its second bankruptcy in two years, Revel has been unable to find anyone willing to buy the property and keep it open as a casino. When it opened in April 2012, it was so laden with debt that it couldn’t bring in enough revenue to cover it.. That included Atlantic City’s only total smoking ban, which alienated many gamblers; the lack of a buffet and daily bus trips to and from the casino; and the absence of a players’ club. The Showboat Casino Hotel closed its doors Sunday, and Trump Plaza is closing Sept. — The most spectacular and costly failure in Atlantic City’s 36-year history of casino gambling begins to play out Monday when the $2.4 billion Revel Casino Hotel empties its hotel.
Analysts and competitors say it was hampered by bad business decisions and a fundamental misunderstanding of the Atlantic City casino customer.
“Revel struggled with the execution of plans to develop their market, as well as with their design and just a basic understanding of the Atlantic City visitor,” he said.
So what killed Revel?
The casino broke ground just before the Great Recession. But the market that Revel foresaw for its property just didn’t materialize, partially because of the growing perception that the city wasn’t ready for that kind of customer
“Theories of global and multisensory integration deficits in ASD are deeply rooted in the scientific conversation about autism,” said Zaidel, a member of BIU’s Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center and the article’s lead author. Significantly – and this is where our method differs from previous tests – we can achieve measurable results both when randomized dots are included in the overall picture, and in a completely coherent, noise-free environment.”
One of the hallmarks of ASD is superior low-level task performance alongside reduced performance in tasks that involve the processing of complex sensory data. In these experiments, the level of noise at which participants can no longer determine overall direction is seen as a measure of the participant’s innate ability to integrate isolated visual stimuli into a global picture.
The simulator was able to make the person sitting in the chair feel movement, thus requiring the participant to respond to and interpret visual and vestibular stimuli at the same time.
Young people who eat out a lot risk getting high blood pressure from the high salt, saturated fat and calorie content in restaurant food, according to researchers at Singapore’s Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School who published their findings in the American Journal of Hypertension.
What is it like to have an autistic brain? Sufferers can’t easily describe the sensations, but now a simulator developed at Bar-Ilan University and Baylor College of Medicine Houston offers a peek at the sensory stimuli processed by the brains of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). “If you’re more heavily weighted toward perceiving the world bottom up – from stimulus to perception – and relying less on rules of thumb from prior knowledge, perception will be both more taxing, and more sensitive to sensory noise.”
“The research showed that heightened sensitivity to sensory noise – the random signals inserted into the visual tasks traditionally used by scientists to test sensory integration levels in autism – may provide an alternative explanation for impaired performance. But the new study has successfully challenged this conventional wisdom and identified a neurological phenomenon connected to greater sensitivity to “noisy” sensory signals.
“Our results suggest that people with autism may experience a deficiency in ‘Bayesian priors’ – the ability to draw on existing knowledge to understand what we see and to predict what we will see in the near future,” Zaidel said. Adam Zaidel and Robin Goin-Kochel and Dora Angelaki, of Baylor.. Thus doctors should advise young patients to exercise more and consume less salt and risky fat when eating out.
DANGERS OF EATING OUT
Zaidel’s new approach proves that such traditional methods – which depend on noise as a modulator of task difficulty – have led to widespread misinterpretation of how individuals with ASD integrate visual stimuli.
Zaidel noted that without randomly-moving dots, autistic participants performed well, successfully determining the direction of movement at a level similar to that achieved by the non-ASD control group. This means that it is the presence of noise – rather than any innate integration deficit – that makes the task more difficult for people with autism.
It may someday be possible to study this phenomenon directly in the brain or create treatments to help the autistic become more adept at reconnecting to and using prior knowledge, Zaidel concluded.
“By adding movement to the experiment, we created a situation in which participants didn’t just see the direction of the movement, but felt it as well,” he explained. Tazeen Jafar designed and supervised a study of 500 university students aged 18 to 40 to find behaviors associated with hypertension in a young adult population in southeast Asia. “In this scenario, people with autism displayed intact multi-sensory integration, completing tasks in a normative manner, both in a coherent, noiseless environment, and even when noise was present. The experiments provided new and exciting data about how sensory stimuli are processed by the brains of individuals with ASD.
The study, published recently in the online Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, was written by BIU’s Dr. Using statistical analysis, the team found that pre-hypertension (slightly elevated blood pressures that can lead to chronic hypertension) was found in 27 percent of the total population; 38% ate more than 12 meals away from home per week. Men did this more often (49%) than women (9%).
There was a significant link between pre-hypertension and hypertension with meals eaten away from home. Strapped into a motion-enabled simulator and wearing 3D glasses, 36 teen volunteers recently experienced what it was like to “travel” through a field of virtual stars. “By asking participants to indicate their perceived direction of movement, we test their ability to create a global picture out of individual details. This has led to the assumption that autism is characterized by a difficulty integrating individual units of perceptual data into global concepts. When the noisy signals were introduced, however, the ASD group was significantly more affected than controls. When this noise is removed from the equation, the integration of visual motion stimuli in ASD is equal to, or maybe even superior to that of the control group, and the multi-sensory integration seen in autistic participants was comparable to that of the non-autistic control group.”
Virtual visual motion processing in ASD has usually been tested using a computer-based tool in which study participants are asked to designate the overall direction of motion of a field of dots, while a certain number of dots – the “noise” in an otherwise coherent picture – are randomly displaced. Based on this belief, experts have thought that people with autism have difficulty integrating multi-sensory input. These findings raise questions about prevalent theories related to multi-sensory integration deficits in ASD.”
“Our study is carried out in a 3D environment in which a field of moving dots generates the feeling of traveling through space, with different trials ‘steering’ to the right or left of straight ahead,” Zaidel said. Eating just one extra meal out raised the odds of pre-hypertension by 6%. “Recently, this notion has come under scrutiny, as more and more investigators have observed discrepancies with experimental results.”
The bureaucratic competition is not always productive, however. But having separate design labs, and a relationship of competition–even antagonism–between them, does make it easier for outsiders to gain access to information about their shortcomings.” If I want to hear what’s wrong with the NIF at Livermore, my best option is to go to people at Los Alamos,” says Hugh Gusterson, an MIT anthropologist who studies the culture of the weapons labs. Oppenheimer remained more cautious, and Teller soon became convinced that Los Alamos, whose director, Norris Bradbury, was an Oppenheimer ally, was insufficiently dedicated to the H-bomb project. With the help of Ernest Lawrence, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist and California scientific entrepreneur, Teller persuaded Congress to create a second design lab in Livermore, Calif., which would go full-speed ahead on the H-bomb project. But some members of the task force privately support such a step–which would almost certainly mean shuttering Livermore, the smaller of the two. In the late 1940s, Teller began advocating the immediate development of a hydrogen bomb, in response to the news that Russia had built an atomic weapon.
COPYRIGHT 2006 Washington Monthly Company
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
. All rights reserved.
The ultimate truth, say historians, is that the rancor was probably worth it: Thanks to competition between the two labs, America more quickly produced the H-bomb, and therefore had a more effective deterrent against the Soviet Union sooner. From the start, scientists at Los Alamos felt undermined by and resentful of Teller and his new facility, which they saw as radical and potentially dangerous. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.
If elected officials ever get around to consolidating our weapons complex, they’ll have to decide whether to also consolidate the design labs.
When the H-bomb was eventually produced, Livermore was given most of the credit. The question will be whether these advantages will outweigh the benefits of competition. This infuriated scientists at Los Alamos, who had in fact run the thermonuclear tests that had helped pave the way for the bomb. Doing so would not only provide the cost and security improvements associated with consolidation of special nuclear material, k would also, in all likelihood, make it easier to reduce the number of weapons scientists employed by the complex–and therefore the amount of federal money for “make-work” designed solely to keep those scientists busy.
The antagonism has its roots in the relationship between the two fathers of the atomic program, Edward Teller and Robert Oppenheimer. At the end of the Cold War, Livermore scientists reviewed the Los Alamos design for the W88 warhead.
In the long and storied history of bureaucratic infighting, few contests have been more vitriolic than the one between our two major nuclear weapons design labs, Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore. (The production facilities largely work on separate aspects of the process, so there’s no real competition taking place.) The Overskei report neither recommended nor discouraged consolidating the two labs into one. They concluded, wrongly as it turned out, that the design was unsafe, and advised against building it, a judgment that was received at Los Alamos as a slap in the face. Livermore scientists, for their part, saw their counterparts at Los Alamos as stodgy and risk-averse. ‘And if I want to hear what’s wrong with the DAHRT at Los Alamos, I’ll go to people at Livermore.”
“nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.
The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.
The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.
The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.
A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”
The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.
“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.
CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years.
At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.
“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.
But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. Nelson.
The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”
But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.
Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”
The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so.
However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:
Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).
Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.
Copyright 2003 CBS.
Last year, the U.S. wants to stop proliferation.
By Jarrett Murphy
The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. arsenal. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. ET Sunday.
AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak
A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. All rights reserved.
But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.
Testing — The U.S. According to Sen. Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”
“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.
Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.
Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. In the modern U.S. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.
CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. D
Under the Obama proposal, the budget for other DOE work related to nuclear nonproliferation would also be curtailed by about $277 million. continue to sustain the nation’s nuclear security,” he said, without delving into budgetary issues or specific programs.
The priority shift “is going to be a disaster,” said a Democratic congressional aide, who asked not to be identified because he was not authorized to speak on the budget before its official release. The study determined that the modernization program was underfunded, and steps have been taken to ensure adequate funding for essential modernization needs moving forward.”
Under the 2014 proposal, the Energy Department’s nuclear weapons activities funding — which includes modernization efforts for bomber-based and missile-based warheads – would be increased roughly 7 percent, or around $500 million, above the current level of $7.227 billion for these activities.
The Center for Public Integrity has previously reported administration officials had agreed that the number of nuclear warheads the U.S. It then asked the Pentagon to provide the additional $7 billion.
Joan Rohlfing, president of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a nonprofit arms control group founded by Ted Turner and former Sen. These programs have experienced billions of dollars in cost overruns in recent years, forcing the administration to look elsewhere in the DOE budget to find the money it needs to keep them alive.
The Energy Department needs at least $3 billion to $5 billion more to upgrade the B61 nuclear bomb – meant for deployment aboard strategic and tactical aircraft – than it initially expected, and several billions of dollars more to cover cost overruns in construction of the uranium processing facility. But he said officials may have calculated that they cannot win congressional support for further cuts in nuclear arsenals with Russia without spending billions more to refurbish America’s remaining stockpile of nuclear weapons, under a bargain Obama struck during his first term.
As recently as December 3, President Obama described the government’s nuclear nonproliferation efforts – including some directed by the Defense Department – as “one of our most important national security programs.” Speaking at the National Defense University, Obama said the effort was “nowhere near done. A Pentagon spokeswoman, Jennifer D. “I will certainly look into this with high priority” if confirmed, he told Scott.
The department’s nonproliferation programs, aimed at diminishing the security threat posed by fissile materials in other countries that can be used for nuclear weapons, would be cut by roughly 20 percent, or $460 million, below the current level of $2.45 billion, the officials said.
But several officials and other sources familiar with the administration’s budget deliberations this year said the DOE nuclear weapons-related cost overruns and the new austerity climate gripping Washington – including the demand under so-called “sequestration” legislation for $54 billion in national security spending cuts each year until 2021 -had upended the administration’s plans to spend more on nonproliferation.
The plant is about 60 percent completed, but one senior administration official called it “managerially and programmatically, a nightmare,” with continuously rising costs.
Moniz, in his confirmation hearing, tread carefully around the topic of what the department should be spending on nonproliferation. At the end of it, a $250 million DOE “nuclear counterterrorism incident response” program previously considered a weapons activity was shifted to the nonproliferation budget account, a change that has the effect of making the bottom line for that account look better than it otherwise would have.
Asked for comment, NNSA spokesman Robert Middaugh said he could not respond until the budget has been formally released. Not by a long shot.” He also proudly said the government has been “increasing funding, and sustaining it … nuclear weapons arsenal into fuel for reactors that generate electricity, known as the Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication plant in Savannah River, S.C. Sam Nunn, said “the U.S. But that still left a $4 billion gap between DOE’s nuclear weapons-related promises to the military and its ability to complete that work, forcing a scramble during the department’s budget deliberations to cut from other programs, officials said.
Under the Obama administration’s proposal for fiscal year 2014, spending for the MOX plant would be around $330 million, or 47 percent of the budget it was supposed to get next year. Its construction would be greatly slowed, while the Defense Department and the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration study alternative ways to safeguard tons of the excess plutonium.. But Democrats on Capitol Hill and independent arms control groups predicted the decision will provoke controversy and a substantial budget fight this year.
Only one category of Energy Department nonproliferation work would be increased – research and development, mostly to finance work on a new nuclear detonation sensor to be placed about Air Force satellites.
Secretary of Energy nominee Ernest Moniz, speaking at a Senate confirmation hearing Tuesday, ducked multiple questions from Sen. That would include a 16 percent cut in spending on efforts to halt the use of fissile material in civilian nuclear reactors and collect or secure weapons-usable fissile materials in other countries; an 8 percent cut in spending on policy to control the spread of nuclear weapons-related technologies; and a 36 percent cut in efforts to monitor potential illicit commerce in fissile materials.
The half-billion-dollar shift in spending priorities reflects an administration decision that nuclear explosives work the Energy Department performs for the military should be both accelerated and expanded. because our national security depends on it.”
In the end, the Pentagon was cajoled into contributing $3 billion more. programs for securing, reducing and eliminating weapons usable nuclear materials are a critical part of our strategy for combating nuclear terrorism and preventing the proliferation of these deadly dangerous materials…A decision to significantly cut these programs, including our near-term ability to dispose of excess plutonium, would be a setback to our ability to reach critical security goals.”
The department also needs more funds than anticipated for improvements to the W76 warhead, which is carried by Trident submarine-based missiles.
The new weapons-related spending would expand efforts to upgrade the W76, W88, W78, and B-61 warheads, and help fund construction of a new facility in Tennessee for processing uranium, a nuclear explosive used in these and other warheads. That plant was initially budgeted at $1.8 billion, but the pricetag has ballooned to at least $7.5 billion, provoking widespread criticism and allegations of mismanagement.
Specifically, officials said, the Energy Department determined in consultation with the Pentagon that it would likely need $10 billion in new funds to fulfill all of its promises to the military for the production of modernized warheads, over the next decade alone.
Tom Collina, research director for the Arms Control Association, a Washington-based nonprofit group, said “in a way,” it seems inconsistent for the administration to promote arms control while cutting the DOE’s nonproliferation budget. Elzea, declined to address the issue in detail but confirmed that “over the past year DOD and DOE carried out a joint study regarding DOD’s nuclear weapons requirements and funding options for those requirements. “These cuts are going to be huge,” and will be particularly problematic amid budget boosts for weapons programs that many lawmakers believe “have been mismanaged for the last five to six years.”
The Obama administration will propose a deep cut in funding for nuclear nonproliferation programs at the Energy Department largely so it can boost the department’s spending to modernize its stockpile of nuclear weapons, according to government officials familiar with the proposed 2014 federal budget to be unveiled Wednesday, April 10.
One, who asked not to be named, said the DOE shortfall had set off “months of wrangling” about the issue, not only within the department but at the highest levels of the administration. military deploys could be cut by at least a third, below a limit of 1550 established in a treaty with Russia in 2010. “If confirmed, I intend to make sure that [DOE laboratories and intelligence experts] … (Work on the facility and its equipment was well along when DOE abruptly realized it would not be large enough to accommodate needed machinery, forcing a costly redesign and lengthy delays.)
Much of the reduction in nonproliferation spending – around $183 million – would come from a controversial plant designed to transform excess plutonium from the U.S. The officials have also decided to discuss a potential agreement for such reductions with Russian president Vladimir Putin.
But then-Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, after hearing from aides that these overruns were due in part to poor management and inaccurate cost accounting at DOE, initially said the department would not provide any new funds to DOE, on top of the $4.5 billion it previously promised to cover earlier overruns, according to two government officials privy to the deliberations.
To cover the $10 billion total cost overrun, the Energy Department and its National Nuclear Security Administration agreed to transfer roughly $3 billion into weapons work from management accounts and other internal savings. Tim Scott (R.-S.C.) about whether he supports completing the MOX plant
I haven’t been in Vegas since I was 13 years old; so most would say that I have never been there. It has, after all, come to a shock to me and to those people close enough to me to know that I, in all intents and purposes, really don’t like to travel beyond my 5 mile radius. My wife, an emphatic traveler herself, would gladly give up her existence as she knows it to have a chance at the job that Sandra Brown has. Traveling the world, staying at wonderful and exotic places and reporting it all back to the people on the other end of the television; people like me who think that it might be better to watch a show about traveling to these places, as it is to actually set foot in them.
My trip to Vegas is here. I’m not an adrenaline junkie nor am I that much of an adventurer; but I do enjoy telling stories. He was never really big on experimenting with different foods either.
I do enjoy gambling and the occasional show that my wife more then likely would drag me too, but really, other then that what is there to do in Vegas? I secretly thought that when they came up with the whole slogan; “what happens in Vegas, stays in Vegas” was meant, in some part to me. I think he felt more comfortable with his surroundings when he knew what channel ABC was on so that he wouldn’t miss his evening news. The Travel Channel, if memory serves me correctly, did a story on this hotel; but I’m not positive how I felt about it one way or another. Maybe this is what they mean about things happening in Vegas, a convenient little antidote that I will surely employ.. I blame this on my parents; my father specifically, although my mother should carry some of the guilt.
Your rating: None Average: 2 (1 vote)
Might kind as quite a surprise to learn that I have became a travel writer for a travel newsletter.
I am, without question, one of the biggest home bodies that I have ever met. To this day he will not eat any type of fish unless my mother prepares for him…same way every time.
Yes, I am the product of my parents; and I’m damn proud of it. Growing up, they would take my sister and I on vacations, but it seemed to me that my father was always more excited about coming back home then us kids were of going. I feel, that for the first time in a great while, I will find it more enjoyable to go on my vacation, then I will be of going home. My laptop is as important to me as bug spray on my trip, because no matter where I go, the one thing that needs to be done is to record it all. Will the lights welcome me in? Will the room be as comfortable as it sounded when the travel agent described it to me? Will I think of the movie ‘Casino’ as I sit in wait in great haste for my room service meal?
I was looking for some travel ideas when I came across a deal going to Las Vegas from Miami and staying at the Stratosphere Hotel. Don’t know much about this hotel, other then what is written in the caption. Sometimes that feeling of comfort overshadows the pure excitement that I had counting down the minutes before my vacation; but I put on a brave face and I trek on.
So here I sit in this crowded airport waiting for my seat to be called to board this Boeing airliner that is to serve as my chariot for this journey. Not having seen the bright lights of Vegas, I have pre-determined notions of what to expect. I’m so boring that upon my arrival I would have to use that discrete slogan rather then tell them that I simply hung out in my hotel room watching television.
So, after coming to grips that no matter how much I would like to convince myself; and others that only have a passing idea of the real me, there is no way that I will be that renowned traveler. I enjoy taking trips, but much like my father, I find comfort in coming back home
C?m ??u t? ch?c ???ng dây ?ánh b?c tr?c tuy?n là Ph?m Huy Toàn (SN 1977, ng? qu?n Bình Th?nh, TPHCM, có 1 ti?n án t?i “l?a ??o chi?m ?o?t tài s?n”) b? ?? ngh? truy t? v? t?i “t? ch?c ?ánh b?c”. Toàn ???c xác ??nh là giám ??c công ty CP truy?n thông FAM (tr? s? ? m?t tòa nhà trên ???ng ?inh Tiên Hoàng, ph??ng ?a Kao, qu?n 1, TPHCM).
27 ng??i có liên quan ??n ???ng dây ?ánh b?c này b? ?? ngh? truy t? v? t?i “?ánh b?c”, trong ?ó không ít b? can là gi?i trí th?c, công ch?c Nhà n??c…
???c bi?t giao di?n trang Fun88 có nhi?u ngôn ng? khác nhau, ng??i ch?i có th? ??t c??c ? t?t c? các môn c? b?c và có th? ?ánh b?c tr?c ti?p v?i nhau. ?? núp bóng tinh vi ho?t ??ng, Toàn thành l?p công ty CP truy?n thông FAM, v?i gi?y phép ???c c?p là qu?ng cáo, marketing qua m?ng Internet.
Toàn s? d?ng các tài kho?n ?? chuy?n ti?n cho nhà cái ? n??c ngoài; ??ng th?i thanh toán ti?n c? b?c cho các con b?c trong n??c. Có 59 tài kho?n ngân hàng c?a nhân viên công ty CP truy?n thông FAM ???c Toàn s? d?ng vào m?c ?ích c? b?c. Gi?a n?m 2012, Toàn chuy?n giao quy?n ?i?u hành công ty cho ng??i em h? là V? Vi?t H?i (SN 1985, ng? qu?n Bình Th?nh) nh?ng th?c ch?t v?n ?i?u hành t?t c? m?i ho?t ??ng.
Theo k?t lu?n ?i?u tra, Toàn tr??c ?ây là thành viên tích c?c c?a trang m?ng c? b?c M88, ?ã b? B? Công an ?ánh s?p. Trong th?i gian là chân r?t c? b? c?a M88, Toàn thi?t l?p ???ng dây ?ánh b?c c?c l?n thông qua trang m?ng khác, là Fun88… Con b?c mu?n tr? thành thành viên trang Fun88 ph?i chuy?n ti?n b?ng ngo?i t? hay ti?n Vi?t Nam vào tài kho?n cho Toàn, r?i ???c c?p m?t tài kho?n trên trang c? b?c trên, có s? ti?n ?o t??ng ???ng, dùng ?? ?ánh b?c.
Theo k?t qu? ?i?u tra, ???ng dây ?ánh b?c qua m?ng Fun88 có hàng ngàn con b?c tham gia trên c? n??c, trong ?ó không ít con b?c là gi?i trí th?c, doanh nhân, ng??i giàu có…. S? ti?n c? b?c giao d?ch qua các tài kho?n này lên ??n hàng tr?m t? ??ng.
Th?c t? l?y danh ngh?a này, Toàn tuy?n nhân viên, yêu c?u m?i ng??i dùng gi?y t? cá nhân m? 5 – 6 tài kho?n ngân hàng r?i có gi?y ?y quy?n cho Toàn s? d?ng các tài kho?n này
Ms Chavez said the casino offered only to refund the $20 she’d put in the machine and give her free meals and a room for the night.
We must not forget that a human put that technology in place. “If it’s a factual mistake, the gaming authority will back the casino. I’ll say upfront that Fortune Valley Casino – the Colorado casino where Louise Chavez won $42.9 million off a penny slot machine – might want to change its name to Mistake Valley Casino.
“It’s unfortunate when it happens,” said Colorado Division of Gaming spokesman Don Burmania. Maybe she wears a pace maker that caused the machine to synchronize with her heart and mind to win. “I’m like, ‘Oh, my God! Oh, my God!’ I’d never had this feeling before in my life, never.”
This needs to go to court. I’m willing to fly to Colorado as a technology expert to plead her case.
Considering the Colorado Gaming Department’s assertion that this particular type of slot machine is designed to pay off no more than $250,000, does Chavez have a shot at collecting anything close to $42.9-million – an amount which, she had been told, is more than the entire casino is worth?
Maybe Chavez would have better luck with lawyer Bob Nersesian. April 15, 2010 at 16:03 ET $46.65 per share up 0.39) they can afford it.
The casino owners also argued there was a sign on the wall that says the top prize for penny machines is $251,000. She just happened to be standing there, putting a penny in.
“All of a sudden I saw the light come on top of the machine,” Ms Chavez told Good Morning America. Chavez, her attorney or her family demand a copy of the computer logs on that machine from the time it was installed.
Now let us consider the term computer glitch:
But first the reported facts:. Louise Chavez put in a penny, and she got millions – only in America. Ms. Chavez. My brother wanted to know “You work with computers. Also based in Vegas, he’s known as an aggressive player’s advocate and once succeeded in getting a faulty slot machine payout resolved in the gambler’s favor. Insurance needs to pay up, and the casino needs to find the real culprit. If I was Ms. When consumers make mistakes, we are forced to pay for the corrections with or without insurance. If the casino decides to keep the original name, one question would always remain unanswered because of this incident – a fortune for whom?
“My emotions changed from excited, thrilled to very upset,” she said. Only once? That doesn’t sound like a glitch, it sounds like luck.
While a glitch is usually attributed to the computer hardware the time elapsed before detection is short because the failure is obvious. And now Mistake Valley Casino is trying to rob her. Chavez should be given the option of legally arguing her case, and ask that they change the name of the casino to Mistake or Glitch Valley Casino. The Government should get involved to stop corporations that think it is okay to play with consumers’ economics and emotions. What was the date on the winning penny? Where did she get 2,300 pennies in the first place? Why can’t the slot machine manufacturer, WMS Industries of Waukegan, Illinois be forced to pay for the mistake? According to the NYSE stock exchange (e.g. It started coughing out money – but then casino workers told her it was all a mistake, reports ABC News.
On March 31, 2010, while talking with my older brother Garland Walker Jr., alias Iceberg Slim, he told me a story about a woman who had the good luck to win $42.9 million at a casino. Then she had the bad luck to lose it, due to a computer glitch. But it was no fault of Ms. Another human decided to take a chance at winning the posted amount. But it does not state how often that prize can be paid out, the time between wins or the number of pennies necessary to win. Can they not pay her because of a computer glitch?” I said I’d look into it.
Now let us consider the technological circumstances:
Doing the right thing would even have a bright side for Fortune Valley Casino – just imagine how many more people would be willing to play there, knowing they can play a penny and get millions of dollars. Maybe the real culprit is a disgruntled former employee, or a hacker. Based on this ambiguous sign, Ms. More accurate circumstances which are frequently called computer glitches are incorrectly written software, incorrect instructions given by the operator, undetected invalid input data, incidents created by viruses, computer related hacking and undetected communications errors.
“Her likelihood is slim,” says Las Vegas attorney David Chesnoff, a go-to guy for clients who range from the town’s biggest poker pros to celebrities like Britney Spears and Shug Knight. Many manufactures use glitch to suggest a minor fault which will soon be rectified verses a bug, which is a factual statement that a programming fault is to blame for a system failure. “We don’t like it to happen, the casinos don’t like it to happen and in this case, the patron didn’t like it, either.”
Colorado gaming officials are investigating the incident, but said it could be nothing more than an unfortunate computer glitch.
The failure of a computing system to complete its functions or to perform task as designed. If Colorado is anything like Nevada, whatever gaming says is what it will be unless she can show any kind of fraud.”
That’s my defense, and I would appreciate comments from readers. She is obviously the new major stakeholder in Mistake Valley Casino.
In any case, if there was a ‘glitch,’ the machine should have read a series of 9s or 0s, not $42,949,673. “I got a $100,000 jackpot for a guy who played a machine that was programmed never to pay out more than nine grand,” he says. “Today, I don’t think I would win that case,” he says.
Now for my technological opinion:
At this point, let us consider views from other sources: Michael Kaplan of Daily Finance took the story in an interesting direction, looking at the odds of collecting on the $42.9 million:
I did not have to look far because the story is getting a lot of attention on the Internet. “It was a similar kind of mistake; a mechanism inside the machine had been misprogrammed.” But, says Nersesian, that case happened during a different time. Chavez was winning so fast the machine needed time to count the pennies and calculate the win. Chavez, I would tell the casino to pay $251,000 each day, week or month until I get my $42,949,673.
Louise Chavez was playing the machine at a casino in Central City, Colorado, when lights and bells went off to announce a jackpot. Corporations have insurance to correct their mistakes and glitches.
The casino owners pointed out it happened only once. This was more like a lucky itch than a glitch, because this lady must have entered over 2,000 pennies in the machine based on the amount returned by the casino. The possibilities should make Ms. They owe her an apology for delaying the payout. For me, it’s a question of entitlement. Chavez could assume that for every penny she could win $251,000
However, charges against the deputy minister were suddenly dropped in March, and the journalists were arrested six weeks later.
“I really did not deliberately abuse freedom and democracy,” he said. “It was only a professional accident.”
Media watchdog groups have called for the journalists’ release and said their arrests will discourage reporting on official wrongdoing.
Prosecutors accused the journalists of publishing false information, including that an executive involved in the case bribed officials with $500,000 in an attempted cover-up.
Tuesday, October 14, 2008
Prosecutors have asked for up to two years’ probation for the chief investigator, police Maj. Pham Xuan Quac. They asked Hai be given up to two years’ probation.
Hai testified that he did not intend to violate the law.. The unit received substantial funding from the World Bank and the Japanese government.
Foreign media and diplomats are being allowed to follow the court proceedings via closed-circuit television.
Prosecutors recommended that Chien be jailed for between two years and two and a half years. They sought a jail sentence of up to two and a half years for the other officer.
FOXNews.com – Vietnam tries 2 journalists for corruption reports – International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News
The ruling Communist Party says fighting corruption is one of its top priorities.
HANOI, Vietnam –
Prosecutors on Tuesday sought a jail sentence of up to two and a half years for a Vietnamese journalist on trial for allegedly writing inaccurate stories about one of the country’s most high-profile corruption cases.
Reporter Nguyen Viet Chien, 56, was charged with “abusing freedom and democracy.” Another reporter, Nguyen Van Hai, 33, is facing the same charge. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
“The trial will be a crucial test for press freedom and the struggle against corruption in Vietnam,” Paris-based Reporters Without Borders said last week.
Two police officers, including the chief investigator in the corruption case, also went on trial Tuesday on charges of “deliberately revealing state secrets” for allegedly providing information to the two journalists.
The case prompted the transportation minister to resign and led to the arrest of a deputy minister. “I therefore assumed that it was real.”
Hai and Chien were arrested in May for reporting on a 2005 scandal in which officials at a division of the Transportation Ministry were accused of gambling with funds allegedly embezzled from infrastructure projects.
Chien told the court that he had assumed the information was accurate.
Nine people have been convicted of betting millions of dollars on European football matches with money allegedly taken from a unit of the Transportation Ministry that managed major road and bridge construction projects. Gen. All rights reserved. Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. Both journalists are known for their aggressive reporting on corruption for two of Vietnam’s most popular newspapers.
Newspapers initially condemned the reporters’ arrests, but the government quickly clamped down on the state-controlled media and very little information has since been publicized about them.
“I received the information from police officials investigating the case,” he said
Families expanded their use of “plastic money” even faster. Both sides of the Reaganomic fence provide more than enough evidence in support of the argument that says: lower and middle class America lost significant ground during the 1980′s. These methods provided a way of reducing full-time labor wage costs, which included a reduction in employee benefits cost. One argument presented to explain this problem is that the “low wage explosion is mostly a statistical illusion, reflecting the impact of inflation and recession on workers’ earnings (Geoghegan 124).” Another proposal is to attribute the problem to a large influx of baby boomers into the work force. Reaganomics, in effect, was a program to strengthen business and industry while weakening the power of organized labor, reduce federal spending on other than military programs, reduce taxes, and regulatory abatement. In some cases businesses just simply got out of the production end and found alternate “ways of making paper profits” or found other ways to reduce labor costs.
The total amount borrowed by consumers nearly doubled between 1981 and 1986, from $394 Billion to $739 Billion. Families filing chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code grew from an average of less than 39,000 per year (1975-1980) to almost 95,000 a year (1981-1984) (Harrison Bluestone 152).In effect, most Americans during the Reagan Years went into debt. Many of the nation’s economic critics saw the policies of Reaganomics as short-term answers to a long-term problem by borrowing against the nation’s future.
Part of the Reagan plan was a reduction in taxes. It became a joke to say, “We are spending money to help the economy.” Consumer borrowing doubled between 1981 and 1986, from $394 Billion to $739 Billion. This article will discuss one particular facet of the Reaganomics debate; the issue of inequality in income distribution in America as a result of a turn-around in government policies combined with corporate restructuring.
Reagan was not the only one conducting a reduction program. During the 1980′s, the U.S. As Harrison and Bluestone state it, “Globalization of production was no longer supplementing domestic manufacturing but replacing it (Harrison Bluestone 28).” Restructuring involved creating multinational corporations with its headquarters and support functions in the major capitalist countries. lost one out of three heavy industrial jobs.
In Thomas Geoghegan’s book, Which Side Are You On? Trying To Be For Labor When It’s Flat on Its Back, two pieces of legislation are discussed as the beginning of the end for organized labor began with the 1935 Wagner Act and the National Labor relations Board (NLRB). U.S. Therefore, it’s not too surprising to see the average American family would not be to upset if union organizations were losing ground. Reaganomics as described by most, if not all economists and historians was supply-side economics; however, this in itself doesn’t really explain Reaganomics because of what actually happened. This was more than $1,740 less than they would have received based on 1968 income levels (Harrison Bluestone 131). production employment. The Reagan Administration simply continued this trend toward economic deregulation as initiated under Carter. A further major benefit of these creative pay systems was that they provided a way to avoid unions or at least keep the impact of union actions at a minimum. Reagan policies were designed to provide some flexibility for businesses to contain production costs, increase profits by reducing labor costs, and reducing the costs involved in meeting government standards. businesses began discarding their standard practices and shifted capital into overtly speculative ventures. Keeping labor costs from rising is not the only reason that U.S. Employment in mining actually rose until 1981 only to fall nearly in half during the 1980′s through the 1990′s (Slater 129).
Any discussion on Reaganomics should always contain a definition of Reaganomics so let’s get that out of the way from the start. Ronald Reagan’s supporters credit him as being the great savior of the American economy; his critics’ credit his policies for creating the destruction of labor and gambling away the future of the American economy through massive increases in the federal deficit. Salaries and benefits of corporate CEOs as compared to the average factory workers were 30 times higher in1980 and reached 130-140 times higher in 1991 (Krugman 262). Yet, organized labor was not the only one to feel the reduction of government support. This shows that there was a higher distribution of income in the hands of fewer people (Krugman 25).
Deregulation under Carter and Reagan opened the industries of steel, automotive, carpenters, and trucking to what Geoghegan called gypsies – small owner operators (Geoghegan 139). The groundwork for Reaganomics policies was put in place well before his time.
But what is the cost of these outsourcing? The result of reductions in domestic production and outsourcing was a reduction in U.S. At the end of the Carter Era the GINI Index before taxes was (.403) and (.352) after taxes. This group shrank from 53-percent in 1973 to 47.9-percent in 1984. However, the benefactors of the tax reduction were not the majority of wage earners. The same act that affirmed the right to organize but gave the NLRB the job of certifying whether or not a union was to be considered “officially” recognized. Either there exists a significant polarization of income distribution around the middle-class or the middle-class is now what used to be the lower-end of the upper-class income.
While Presidents Reagan and Bush froze the minimum wage level for a nine-year period, essentially cutting pay each year as inflation bit into lower wage earners, the salaries of executives skyrocketed during the 80′s. Harrison and Bluestone call the Reagan Administration “the single greatest gift to the business community” (Harrison Bluestone 102). firms have gone abroad to set up assembly or service operations. New employees would only receive 75 to 80-percent of the normal wage during a probation period (the probation period usually equated to the business’s employee turnover period). His experience through the late 1960′s and 1970′s describes the labor movement as having become political driven organizations characterized by the same characteristics (greed, power, control, and inequality) of those they despised – Big Business. They increased offshore investments and began outsourcing for labor and manufacturing in search of the lowest labor and production costs.
The Government economic policies supporting deregulation and the concept of privatization of government services were actually taken initially between the years 1968-1978. Reminiscent of the 1920′s and 1930′s, the middle class, formerly the largest class of the post WWII through the Vietnam War era has also been ever decreasing in size. “The old Teamster order collapsed and thousands of firms closed (Geoghegan 139).” During the late 1970′s and into the 1980′s, the Teamster membership fell from 2.2 million to 1.6 million. Since employee turnover is highest during the first few months of employment, businesses could save at least 20 to 25-percent of the wages they would have paid to an employee during that same period.. Harrison and Bluestone define what is usually considered the middle-class income earners, as those making $20,000 to $50,000 annually. With the weakening of organized labor by deregulation, businesses began experimenting with organizational changes to include work, labor, management relations, and flexible arrangements with employees, subcontractors, otherwise known as corporate restructuring.
Geoghegan believes that part of the weakening of unions also has to do with a lack of sympathy by the average family. This included family members taking on extra jobs or moonlighting in order to make ends meet. This act also weakened union power by outlawing mass picketing, secondary strikes on neutral employers, and sit-downs. By the late 1980s the before tax GINI Index was (.423) with the after taxes GINI as (.404). The wage-gap between the America lower income group and the upper or rich America group has been ever increasing. Union bureaucracy began to rival that of the federal and state court systems (Geoghegan 86-7).
Contingency labor pools were (and still are) not organized under a union. The inequality of income is not limited to only a specific age group (Harrison Bluestone 125).
There is plenty of material to argue whether or not Reaganomics was an economic success or an economic blunder. Often it’s stated that the Reagan Administration was trying to reduce the double-digit inflation of 1980 and turn around the falling rate of production. The GINI Index numbers support this disparity. Who paid for the improvements in American business during the 1980′s? The lower 60% of American workers paid for these improvements through the reductions in the real purchasing power of their income.
Geoghegan, a former labor attorney, tells of his experiences dealing with organized labor, how and why it has lost its ability to fight. During this period the government went on a spending spree financed by the deficit. The results of these policies directly impacted the redistribution of income in favor of the higher income group (Harrison Bluestone 162).
From 1969 – 1980 (prior to Reaganomics) wage cuts and freezes were “practically non-existent” (Harrison Bluestone 39). The reduced costs resulting from relocating no-skill jobs, low-skill jobs, assembly, and manufacturing operations to low wage areas, validated the practice of outsourcing. Strangely enough, this period seems to be the era of debt for both the government and the American income earners. According to data published in Krugman’s book, Peddling Prosperity: Economic Sense and Nonsense in the Age of Diminished Expectations, income data for the period reflects that the tax reductions during the 1980s actually cost the lower 60-percent income groups, while the top 40-percent income groups saw monetary increases (Krugman 24-5). I must add at this point that the “U-turn” in America’s economics actually began during the 1970′s; Reagan only sped up and expanded the process significantly (“U-turn”- the term used by Bluestone and Harrison to describe the reversal of fortune of the labor forces and the shrinking middle class).
Ronald Reagan’s laissez-faire government policies, reminiscent of the 1920′s, included legislative and legal actions that severely hampered organized labor. Fulltime manning was drastically reduced in watchdog agencies tasked to monitor the various industries. As Geoghegan puts it, the Taft-Hartley led to union busting.
Of course there are many supporters of Reaganomics that will produce statistics showing how the GNP was sustained during the 1980′s; there is really no mystery here. More family members entered the work force in order to increase or sustain real income purchasing power. A major part of Reagan’s policy was to enhance the military complex in order to stay ahead of the perceived communist threat. Also on the hit list for Reaganomics, was the reduction of social programs.
The counter argument against these income disparity issues is attributed by some as simply a matter of normal business cycles. The result of this program was a softening of safety and environmental regulations to ease the burden on industry. Contingency labor included part-time and temporary employees.
Reaganomics Debate:Inequality in Income Distribution, Government Policies and Corporate Restructuring
Mountains of paper have been written about the economic period of the 1980′s, coined Reaganomics. However, after accounting for the business cycle, for productivity, and for the shrinkage of manufacturing jobs, the growing proportion of baby boomers in the work force contributes nothing to an explanation of low wages. By the mid-1970′s global competition was eating away at American business profits. The richest 20-percent received $5,600 more per year in 1986, than they would have based on 1968 monetary values (Harrison Bluestone 131). But most of all, during the Reagan year’s people went into debt.
Creative wage reduction programs such as the two-tier pay system and conversion of a percentage of full-time employees to contingency labor employees (part-time and temporary employees) or a combination of methods became (and are still) the normal practice. And, of course, both sides of the argument will present evidence in support of their positions. During the 1970′s the average family income was $24,000, while the average steelworker was making $40,000. DOD spending doubled $134 billion in 1980 to $282 billion in 1987 (Harrison Bluestone 149). Benefit packages for these contingency employees were either non-existent or at least small enough to still keep labor costs low. They provided (and still do) flexibility to tailor their work force needs to the production needs. The existence of the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC) also quieted union members by insuring the benefits of workers displaced when companies went bankrupt or their pension plans go bust.
This article focused on one particular facet of the Reaganomics debate; the issue of inequality in income distribution in America as a result of a turn-around in government policies combined with corporate restructuring. To continue the weakening of the labor pool, the Reaganites engineered the recessions of 1980 and 1981-2 to under-cut labor organizations while contributing to the corporate bottom line (Harrison Bluestone 14). Employment in the manufacturing area fell seven-percent between 1968 and 1979, continuing to fall twelve-percent more through the 1980′s and 1990′s (Slater 143). Yet, the cost to the average American laborer during that era and continuing into the next administration was what gave Reaganomics its negative reputation.
If labor had not been weakened enough by the high unemployment levels in the late 1970′s, Reagan’s firming of the PATCO members sent a clear message to not only the unions, but also to the courts as to his lack of support for organized labor. Credit card use grew from $55 billion in 1980 to more than $128 billion in 1986 (Harrison Bluestone 149).Families filing chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code grew from an average of less than 39,000 per year (1975-1980) to almost 95,000 a year (1981-1984) (Harrison Bluestone 152).
From 1973 to 1986 average wages have dropped in buying power by nearly 14-percent (Harrison Bluestone 113).In 1986, the average annual income of the poorest 20-percent of all families was $8,033. Yet, no real credible argument has been made that the Reagan years did anything to improve the equality of income distribution. The two-tier wage system allowed reduced wages for employees during the new worker’s first few weeks or months of the normal probation period. As a result, the traditional one-income household was no longer sufficient to keep up with the family economic needs. According to Krugman, these salaries did not come primarily from greater profits, but from a larger slice of the profits.
Social deregulation, as described by Harrison and Bluestone, was a true innovation of the Reagan Administration. This living on debt and buying time was sufficient to fuel a short-term recovery (Harrison Bluestone 147). Reaganomic policies, though we can’t forget some initial deregulation efforts instituted during the Carter years, reversed what had been accomplished prior to the 1970′s (Harrison Bluestone 79). After 1980, the purchasing power of lower-class wage earners through middle-class wage earners degraded throughout the period. The program included freezing the minimum wage and shifting against federal protection of workers’ rights and unions. The Government’s induced deflation, deregulation, regressive tax reform, privatization, and “union bashing” have contributed to new corporate strategies and the inequality of income distribution in America (Harrison Bluestone 16). Some firms have done so to improve their chance of selling to foreign markets or to take advantage of foreign government incentives (taxes) (Harrison Bluestone 31).
Since the mid-1960′s through the 1990′s, Americans have been getting poorer and poorer. Revolving installment credit grew from $55 billion in 1980 to more than $128 billion in 1986 (Harrison Bluestone 149). Additionally, in 1947 and the passing of Taft-Hartley, labor could no longer organize on the scale of unions of the 1930′s. The “engineered recession” of 1980 and 1981-2, along with reductions in social welfare programs contributed to this “great U-turn” in the standard of living of most Americans, employed as well as unemployed, middle managers as well as blue collar workers (Harrison Bluestone viii). As a result of these actions, profit margins rose steadily, yet average wages for families has decreased or at best has somewhat frozen in place.
To better compete in a global economy, US industries adopted a program of “restructuring”. Double income families were not a uniqueness of the lowest income earners, middle-class America also lost, or at least sustained, buying power during the 1980′s